Who would think in past times that introducing an illness to a healthy human being, it was going to be immunized against this pathology. What was not known since the creation of vaccines is that what is introduced in the organism are attenuated cells of the virus, which manage to generate antibodies.
That’S when that organism gets immunized. This procedure is due to the genetic engineering, of which a good part of the modern society depends, because it has to do in much with our quality of life.
What is genetic engineering?
From The cure of our illnesses, the immunizations of the same, going through the costumes and attires that we wear to what we consume and we take to our table.
It Is therefore pertinent to know and to assess to what extent we can benefit from this novel technique of science, which is turning the world as a last generation proposal, in the fields where it has application. Of course, always respecting the regulations and taking into account the risks that can be run.
Genetic engineering is a science that directly modifies the genome of a living being–a hereditary codification of its cellular structure–by means of a group of techniques that separate, reproduce and alter the individual’s genes to the purpose of their study and Benefit.
This Special Branch of engineering consists in putting a gene in the genome of an individual who does not possess it or is deficient in order to provide new capacities. The gene in question is located, extracted, moved away and altered and then inserted.
At other times the DNA is transferred to an organism of equal or different species, resulting In a transgenic individual.
Technique is very common in plants and animals. Likewise, it has the technique of cloning, ie make one or several exact copies of the gene of the same individual. In Nature This procedure applies in yeasts, bacteria, and other living beings.
In The year 1997 was generated a great rebellion in biology, with the cloning of an animal quadruped adult, from cells of their breasts and not from an embryo, and without participation of the male. This Is the Birthplace of the famous «Dolly Sheep» at the Scottish Institute Roslin.
What Genetic Engineering Studies
This Branch of Genetics studies the DNA of genes as chromosomes, to encourage the manipulation of genes for the purpose of generating new genetic characteristics.
In The areas of biology (biotechnology), medicine and pharmacology, great advances have been made thanks to Genetic Engineering.
In the field of medicine, the techniques of genetic manipulation and chromosomes have allowed to optimize certain medical treatments such as gene therapy in which copies of genes are implanted in order to treat a disease.
In the area of pharmacology, the first application is the production of human hormones (insulin, growth hormone), proteins (the factor VIII of coagulation for hemophilia) and industrial vaccines.
Genetic engineering May be able to correct some human gene irregularities in the coming years. However, there are many obstacles, both ethically and technological.
Origin of genetic engineering
In The year 1970 biology began to use the whole set of techniques able to isolate genes and study and then modify them and transfer them from one living being to another.
This Technology started from 1973, when American scientists Cohen and Boyer took a simplified DNA molecule and put it in the genetic code of a bacterium.
In this way their children transported in themselves the molecule introduced in the DNA of their progenitor; Achieving its propagation to all the offspring of the transformed bacterium.
In effect, gene transplants were carried out, even though transplanted genes were not designed for the treatment of patients, but rather to mark the injected cells; They were known killer lymphocytes in oncology as tumor infiltrators, who are responsible for destroying cancer cells.
The patients to whom the transplant was applied died, however, the procedure had proved a success.
This was another of the first attempts to use genetic engineering techniques for therapeutic purposes.
Genetic engineering Objectives
The greatest importance of genetic engineering is to produce desired characteristics and discard the unwanted. Sometimes, it is referred to organisms completely renewed by genetic engineering as transgenics, the fruit of biotechnology or genetically modified.
It Is pursued that this new scientific technology constitutes an extraordinary tool for the development of the life, starting from the innovation and manipulation of the genes adequately.
Genetic Engineering, types
Genetic engineering is relatively young in science, however, to date, we have managed to establish some different types identified by scientists. Some develop outside the laboratory, and not all types of genetic engineering imply genetic manipulation or cloning.
Genetic engineering Also develops in the natural field. Certain types of it have been carried out, for long periods with and without human intervention.
Within the specific types of genetic engineering we have:
Also known as gene management, genetic manipulation makes it easier for scientists to add new material to an organism or cell, or to eliminate it.
Gene restoration and gene therapy are phases of genetic manipulation, these describe procedures in which scientists try to compensate for defective genes, or manipulate genetic traits when the subject remains a single cell.
Human and animal Cloning
In 1997, a group of scientists in Scotland successfully cloned a sheep, which triggered a huge controversy and excitement among the public. The kind that produces the Dolly sheep
Reproductive cloning is one of the different types of cloning. DNA cloning refers to the technique of transferring DNA segments, which has been used since the decade of 1970. For its part, therapeutic cloning occurs at the time that researchers make embryo replication to be used in research.
This type of cloning was used to produce the Dolly sheep in 1997, which caused a great worldwide rant.
Selective breeding is a type of genetic engineering practiced by farmers and breeders, as humans began to cultivate crops and livestock. A Good part of breeds of dogs and modern cats are the consequence of the selective breeding.
By having in vitro fertilization, researchers now have the ability to select human and animal embryos with the most appropriate characteristics.
This procedure is still under investigation and continues to cause a great deal of controversy. In this technique, the knowledge of agronomist Zootecnista is also appreciable.
Already The scientist Charles Darwin had determined this process in the nature, however, it is conceived like the form nature of the genetic engineering. This process is complex and slow, many generations often happen before they see their results.
Today researchers know more about how natural selection works. The genes of each animal are divided into units called exons and introns, which are mixed with transposition elements to maximize the probabilities of creating better genes.
Technologies in Genetic Engineering
This technology is based on separating and manipulating a segment of an individual’s DNA to «combine» it with that of another organism.
DNA is often operated with a restriction endonuclease that generates a staggered incision in the two double strands of DNA. The staggered terminals of both DNA threads complement each other; Condition they should have if they want to join.
The two cut ADN´s are combined, subjected to fire and gradually cooled. Its coinciding ends will unite generating an innovated recombinant DNA, with non covalent joints. Covalent leagues are created by adding DNA ligase and an energy source to form the bonds.
Genetic Engineering, importance
If We look at our outfits we can realize that shirts and trousers are cotton. Well, it precedes plants different from its originals for having gone through an accelerated improvement program, which consisted in the organized application of standard genetic postulates.
The Same goes for the food of the last decades: chicken, rice, wheat, pork, veal, and other organisms that make food to humans on the planet have been mainly selected by plant and animal breeders.
The well-known Green Revolution, which drastically increased the usefulness of crops on a global scale, is but the history of a genetic success; The narration of having obtained, through inspected crosses, of highly productive varieties of some of the species of arable plants of greater consumption.
To improve their harvest, a farmer can sow a large expanse of land with seeds of the same genetic constitution (monoculture).